Achieving low-cost, highly efficient perovskite solar cells

CHEOPS was a research project running from 2016 until 2019, co-funded by the European research and innovation programme Horizon 2020. The project aimed to develop materials and production processes for both up-scaling the perovskite photovoltaics technology and producing high efficiency solar cells in a tandem configuration. The CHEOPS project pioneered the making of a novel type of solar “tandem cells” which are both cheaper to produce and more efficient than any other solar energy technology on the market.

CHEOPS’ tandem cells are transforming rays from the sun into electricity with world-record efficiency. It is a game changer for the green energy transition in Europe as well as a promising new export product to world markets. CHEOPS has contributed to advance the sustainable transformation in Europe as a showcase example for academic/industry innovation.

Project goals

The primary project goals of CHEOPS was to optimise photovoltaic solar cells with perovskite in its active layer, since these have great potential for large scale production at low costs. In CHEOPS we therefore focus on the three major challenges: 1) up-scaling of the technology, 2) developing of perovskite/silicon tandem cells and 3) assessment of potential benefits, risks and impacts. Read more

Scientific Publications

The work in CHEOPS was documented in a range of scientific publications. In this way, CHEOPS has laid the foundation for a number of follow-up projects and contributed actively to maintain European leadership in the development and commercialisation of perovskite photovoltaic technologies. Read more


The CHEOPS consortium included some of Europe’s foremost universities,research organisations, SME and industry partners specialised in various aspects of perovskite photovoltaic technologies. It included partners from seven different European countries and was coordinated by the Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) by Dr Sylvain Nicolay. Read more


CHEOPS was funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The outcomes of the project have resulted in a number of follow-up projects and made a considerable contribution to maintain European leadership in perovskite photovoltaic technologies. Read more

Selected Results

Life Cycle Analysis of CHEOPS technologies

Final assessment of the environmental impacts of CHEOPS technologies per kWh produced. The major environmental impacts per m2 of the produced perovskite single junctions were identified as gold, power consumption and cleaning chemicals.

Socio-economic analysis of CHEOPS technologies

Key Facts Vigilance must be expected from industrialists to curb lead emissions to the environment. High environmental and health benefits seem to be expected from a partial substitution of standard PV technologies by CHEOPS technologies. The SEA considering the whole life cycle and 12 categories of impacts (human toxicity, climate change, land use…), this benefit…

Cost of Ownership calculation of perovskite PV technology

Key Facts The total cost of ownership for a 1GWp production plant scenario located in Germany were calculated. A price of €0.25 per Watt peak for 380W perovskite-Si tandem cell modules and €0.20 per Watt peak for 280W perovskite single junction cell modules were calculated for a 1GWp mass production plant. The cost of ownership…